An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse". Aldous Huxleya leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject.
History[ edit ] The oldest known dictionaries were Akkadian Empire cuneiform tablets with bilingual Sumerian — Akkadian wordlists, discovered in Ebla modern Syria and dated roughly BCE. A Chinese dictionarythe c.
Philitas of Cos fl. Written in verse, it listed around 10, words.
The oldest existing Japanese dictionary, the c. In Frahang-i PahlavigAramaic heterograms are listed together with their translation in Middle Persian language and phonetic transcription in Pazand alphabet.
Arabic dictionaries were compiled between the 8th and 14th centuries CE, organizing words in rhyme order by the last syllableby alphabetical Descriptive essay in tagalog of the radicalsor according to the alphabetical order of the first letter the system used in modern European language dictionaries.
The Qamus al-Muhit is the first handy dictionary in Arabic, which includes only words and their definitions, eliminating the supporting examples used in such dictionaries as the Lisan and the Oxford English Dictionary. The Catholicon by Johannes Balbusa large grammatical work with an alphabetical lexicon, was widely adopted.
It served as the basis for several bilingual dictionaries and was one of the earliest books in to be printed.
In Robert Estienne published the Thesaurus linguae latinae and in his son Henri Estienne published the Thesaurus linguae graecaewhich served up to the 19th century as the basis of Greek lexicography.
It served as the model for similar works in French and English. Between and was published the Vocabulario portughez e latino written by Raphael Bluteau. The Totius Latinitatis lexicon by Egidio Forcellini was firstly published in ; it has formed the basis of all similar works that have since been published.
The first edition of A Greek-English Lexicon by Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott appeared in ; this work remained the basic dictionary of Greek until the end of the 20th century. In the same year appeared the first volume of the Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal which was completed in The Duden dictionary dates back toand is currently the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.
The decision to start work on the Svenska Akademiens ordbok was taken in The word "dictionary" was invented by an Englishman called John of Garland in — he had written a book Dictionarius to help with Latin "diction".
The only surviving copy is found at the Bodleian Library in Oxford. This dictionary, and the many imitators which followed it, was seen as unreliable and nowhere near definitive.
Glossographia by Thomas Blountpublished incontains more than 10, words along with their etymologies or histories.
This created more interest in the dictionaries.
Many people today mistakenly believe that Johnson wrote the first English dictionary:+ free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders.
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Go to: Distributed Proofreaders.
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.
or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon. Jul 31, · An Online Tagalog - English Dictionary Learn Tagalog or Filipino Language for free.