Types[ edit ] Brand extension research mainly focuses on consumer evaluation of extension and attitude toward the parent brand. In their model, Aaker and Keller provide a sufficient depth and breadth proposition to examine consumer behaviour and a conceptual framework. The authors use three dimensions to measure the fit of extension.
HolmanPennsylvania State University- [Most of the research and writing of this paper was done while the first author was a Master of Science candidate at The Pennsylvania State University. A theoretical model of the interrelationships among perception of others, self image, and brand choice is developed in the paper.
This paper makes one step in the direction of rectifying that situation by introducing a subset of sociological theory called "symbolic interactionism". When the conceptual frameworks of symbolic interactionism are applied to analysis of brand choices, new insight into this important aspect of consumer behavior issues as a result.
More specifically, symbolic interactionism defines a concept of self that is new to consumer behavior research, namely the "situational self image". Symbolic interactionists see McCall and Simmons for example treat the self not as a dependent variable, but as a most important variable intervening between the antecedent events of the social world and the consequent actions of the individual.
The approach agrees with the tenets of cognitive psychology which hold that intrapsychic processes mediate stimuli and responses. The difference between the positions taken lies in the specific emphasis by symbolic interactionists upon the effects upon behavior of social stimuli in various situations.
Symbolic interactionism can be seen as having been designed specifically to develop sound theoretical statements concerning social determinants of behavior.
Consumer research can benefit from theory focusing upon social stimuli as has been pointed out in previous papers e. The symbolic interactionist approach to human behavior is based upon six propositions McCall and Simmons Man is a planning animal continuously formulating alternative courses or plans of action for himself.
The execution of a plan is contingent upon the meaning of what is encountered in the situation in which the plan is to be carried out.
Before carrying out a plan, an individual must identify name or categorizeand determine the meaning for what is in the environment. For social plans of action, there must be consensus about the meaning of objects and other people among all those interacting in a situation. The basic, and most important "thing" to be identified in the situation is the individual himself.
Thus, symbolic interactionism proposes a dynamic theory about how individuals formulate and reassess their plans of action in terms of the objects and people encountered in their environments, and in terms of their own assessments of themselves.
All of these elements will be used to formulate a statement about brand choice following a discussion of these propositions in the context of consumer behavior.
The image of "self" includes attitudes, perceptions, and feelings about what is the individual's character, and what should be the appropriate behavior in the situation which is also part of an individual's plan.
The concept of self has been used by consumer behavior researchers to explain both product choice Hamm and Cundiff ; Landon ; and Belch and Landon and brand choice Grubb and Hupp ; Dolich ; Cocanougher and Bruce ; Grubb and Stern ; and Rossalthough brand choice will be the focus of the balance of this paper.
Researchers have operationalized the impact that self image has upon brand and product choice [The theoretical basis for the existence of brand images that are more or less the same for members of a social system lies in proposition 5, that individuals have consensus about objects encountered in the environment.
A major theoretical issue in image congruency research concerns the appropriate theoretical definition of self image. Although an important issue, it will not be pursued here. If there are differences among the self images for an individual, then which one does the individual try to match with the available brand images in order to make the brand choice decision?
While definition of self image has been limited in the consumer behavior literature to these two designations of self, this research has been quite successful in explaining consumer choice behavior Birdwell ; Grubb and Hupp ; Dolich ; Hamm and Cundiff ; Ross ; and Landon although one of these images has not been demonstrated to be superior to the other in predicting brand choice.
As there are significant theoretical differences between these two self-images, the research has not done a good job of identifying the type of self whose image is matched with that of brands.
With the inclusion of symbolic interactionism into the conceptual framework about brand choice, another type of self image emerges. As will be established, this self image has more potential for explaining brand choice, as it is a logical consequence of the propositions of symbolic interaction-ism.
Interested readers should consult this reference for a more expansive explanation of the concepts. These broad categories are called "social positions" Gross, Mason, and McEachern Examples are wife, husband, doctor, student, and daughter.
The set of behavioral expectations held toward the occupant of a given position is called "social role". Social role performances are learned behaviors that are culturally determined.
For example, a university professor is obliged to perform certain functions such as advising, teaching, and research to obtain specific goals e. Each individual occupying the position of university professor fulfills the advising, teaching, and research expectations differently depending upon the goals selected.
Therefore, in a teaching situation, for example, professors behave quite differently from one another, but there is a commonality in their performances that derives from the expectations of the social system for the social role. The individual's subjective assessment of appropriate role behaviors combined with knowledge of the others to be present in a situation determine the choice of the self to express in any situation.
Thus, part of the meaning of one individual for another is how the self is perceived by the other. If that assessment of self has an effect upon the individual's attainment of the plans he has set for himself, then the individual has a vested interest in accurately expressing the self that will best lead to realization of the individual's plans through a favorable impression formed by others in the social situation.
Therefore, the self image is expressed to others in order to create particular impressions and to obtain positive reactions. An example of these elements and their relationships clarifies the point being made here.
Consider the situation in which a young man invites his prospective in-laws Mr.
Part of his assessment of the situation involves an evaluation of the meaning of alternative restaurants; part of it is in his judgment of how Mr.
Smith fit into plans he has for himself e. The other part of his assessment of the situation consists of how he would like to be perceived by them at this point in time in order to realize what plans he has.Brand extension or brand stretching is a marketing strategy in which a firm marketing a product with a well-developed image uses the same brand name in a different product category.
The new product is called a rutadeltambor.comzations use this strategy to increase and leverage brand equity (definition: the net worth and long-term sustainability just from the renowned name).
That’s good, right? Unless the image slider is the only thing on your website (bad idea!), it’s not a good thing. It means it takes away attention from everything else – the stuff that actually matters. The psychology of color as it relates to persuasion is one of the most interesting — and most controversial — aspects of marketing.
At Help Scout we believe the problem has always been depth of analysis. Color theory is a topic of complexity and nuance, but splashy infographics rarely go beyond See ‘n Say levels of coverage. Jan 24, · Anyone doubting the significance of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in relation to BP’s public image must have spent the second half of that year in a cave.
Brand image is the key driver of brand equity, which refers to consumerâ€™s general perception and feeling about a brand and has an influence on consumer behavior.
Advances in Consumer Research Volume 7, Pages A SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH TO BRAND CHOICE: THE CONCEPT OF SITUATIONAL SELF IMAGE. Carolyn Turner Schenk, Burke Marketing Research. Rebecca H. Holman, Pennsylvania State University- [Most of the research and writing of this paper was done while the first author was a Master of Science candidate at The .