Eprime essay

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Eprime essay

Abstract emotion words denoting body internal states are a critical test case because they lack referential links to objects. If actions expressing emotion are crucial for learning correspondences between word forms and emotions, emotion word—evoked activity should emerge in motor brain systems controlling the face and arms, which typically express emotions.

To test this Eprime essay, we recruited 18 native speakers and used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activation evoked by abstract emotion words to that by face- and arm-related action words.

In addition to limbic regions, emotion words indeed sparked precentral cortex, including body-part—specific areas activated somatotopically by face words or arm words. Control items, including hash mark strings and animal words, failed to activate precentral areas.

We conclude that, similar to their role in action word processing, activation Eprime essay frontocentral motor systems in the dorsal stream reflects the semantic binding of sign and meaning of abstract words denoting emotions and possibly other body internal states.

The nature of the sign-meaning relationship has, however, been a matter of much debate.

Eprime essay

A dominant view puts that semantic learning emerges when words are related to objects in the world and the child stores the word—world relationship by correlating the word occurrence with that of objects see, e.

Object and word knowledge would therefore be joined together by circuits spread out over perisylvian language cortex and inferior—temporal areas in the ventral stream. As activation evoked by abstract words has been found in multiple regions including left dorsolateral prefrontal Binder et al.

Eprime essay such, we here use the example of abstract emotion words to further elucidate the neuronal basis of word meaning in the mind and brain and, on a broader level, to draw inferences on the development of such organization that can be applied to broader semantic theory.

There is currently a paucity of strong empirical data concerning the neuronal grounding of emotion words. Indeed, when one surveys the literature, it is evident that most previous studies attempted to obtain brain correlates of emotional—affective meaning processing by contrasting words with extreme valence being judged as either very positive or very negative and therefore receiving high arousal ratings, following Osgood et al.

How can the meaning of emotion words, which are used to speak about internal states of the body and therefore typically have abstract meaning e. The classic explanation of meaning, which links words to referent objects, does fail here because the objects the words relate to are, if existent at all, not directly accessible.

Therefore, the teacher cannot point to an object and say: Accordingly, the meaning of an abstract emotion word is typically established by using the word in action contexts, when language learners naturally express relevant emotions in their behavior Wittgenstein ; Bennett and Hacker The relationship between action and emotion is the subject of a vast psychological literature.

At the most general level, internal states are expressed externally in the most basic avoidance and approach behaviors see Braitenberge. This is one way in which likes, dislikes, and other internal states are grounded in behavior.

More specifically, the now classic work of Ekman and collaborators is strongly demonstrative of the way in which certain emotions are associated with facial expressions that are argued to be evolutionary and pan-cultural Ekman et al. Others have similarly emphasized the importance of the arms and hands in the expression of emotion Tracy and Robins ; Aviezer et al.

The incorporation of gesticulatory hand and arm movements in emotion-recognition robots in the field of artificial intelligence is further evidence of this link Itoh et al. If emotional meaning of words is indeed grounded in emotion-expressing actions, such semantic linkage should be manifest in emotion word processing.

Therefore, if abstract emotion words are semantically bound to emotion-expressing action schemas as the literature suggests, one may expect that these words activate motor regions controlling the body movements that typically express emotions.

This position predicts face and arm motor and premotor cortex activation in emotion word processing, even for abstract emotion words without sensorimotor semantic links. To test whether this prediction is valid, we presented emotion words together with action words arm- and face-related verbs and with control stimuli in a passive reading paradigm and used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI to map hemodynamic brain responses.

With tighter control over stimuli, we attempted to avoid complications introduced by the aforementioned studies which investigated brain correlates of emotional—affective meaning processing using emotionally charged nouns, most of which failed to dissociate affective—emotional word properties from perceptually related semantic ones.

A confound consequently exists in previous studies where it is unclear to what degree the reported brain activity to high-arousal words might be due to sensorimotor semantic properties. The present study aimed to clarify this issue by controlling both types of semantic information about words, affective—emotional and sensorimotor referential information.

Associated Data

To this end, word categories with low emotional ratings were introduced and the category of emotion words was split into subgroups with and without sensorimotor semantic links. Activation of precentral cortex by emotion words, overlapping with somatotopic activation of body-part—specific areas by arm- and face-related words, was found for a wide selection of emotion words and confirmed for the subset of emotion words that were highly abstract in meaning and matched for psycholinguistic properties to the action words.

Our results support intrinsic action grounding of abstract emotional meaning, and we thus postulate a critical role of emotional behaviors and therefore the motor system in the mapping of sign to meaning for these words.

Materials and Methods Subjects All 18 participants were right-handed, monolingual native English speakers.

Eprime essay

Participants had normal or corrected-to-normal vision and no history of neurological or psychiatric illness; they were not taking any psychotropic drugs at the time of the study. Participants were informed of the nature of the experiment, gave full written consent, and were all paid for their time.

Stimuli Prior to the fMRI experiment, a semantic rating study was performed on a large vocabulary to obtain a suitable list of stimulus words.E-Prime (short for English-Prime or English Prime, sometimes denoted É or E′) is a version of the English language that excludes all forms of the verb to be, including all conjugations, contractions and archaic forms..

Some scholars advocate using E-Prime as a device to clarify thinking and strengthen writing. A number of other scholars have criticized E-Prime. PTC Mathcad is Engineering Math Software That Allows You to Perform, Analyze, and Share Your Most Vital Calculations.

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E-Prime - Wikipedia