Swedish overseas colonies Russia and former Soviet Union[ edit ] In the Russian EmpireGovernorate Guberniya and Governorate-General were the main units of territorial and administrative subdivision since the reforms of Peter the Great. These were governed by a Governor and Governor-general respectively.
The tsarist leadership represented an authoritarian, conservative form of governance. The Kadet Party see Constitutional Democratic Partycomposed mostly of liberal intellectuals, formed the greatest opposition to the tsarist regime leading up to the February Revolution.
The Kadets transformed from an opposition force into a role of established leadership, as the former opposition party held most of the power in the new Provisional Government, which replaced the tsarist regime. The February Revolution was also accompanied by further politicization of the masses.
Politicization of working people led to the leftward shift of the political spectrum. Many urban workers originally supported the socialist Menshevik Party see Menshevikwhile some, though a small minority in February, favored the more radical Bolshevik Party see Bolshevik.
The Mensheviks often supported the actions of the Provisional Government and believed that the existence of such a government was a necessary step to achieve Communism. On the other hand, the Bolsheviks violently opposed the Provisional Government and desired a more rapid transition to Communism.
In the countryside, political ideology also shifted leftward, with many peasants supporting the Socialist Revolutionary Party see Socialist-Revolutionary Party. The SRs advocated a form of agrarian socialism and land policy that the peasantry overwhelmingly supported.
For the most part, urban workers supported the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks with greater numbers supporting the Bolsheviks as progressedwhile the peasants supported the Socialist Revolutionaries. The rapid development and popularity of these leftist parties turned moderate-liberal parties, such as the Kadets, into "new conservatives.
Opposition was most obvious with the development and dominance of the Petrograd Sovietwhich represented the socialist views of leftist parties. A dual power structure quickly arose consisting of the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet.
While the Provisional Government retained the formal authority to rule over Russia, the Petrograd Soviet maintained actual power. With its control over the army and the railroads, the Petrograd Soviet had the means to enforce policies.
Despite its short reign of power and implementation shortcomings, the Provisional Government passed very progressive legislation. The policies enacted by this moderate government by Russian standards represented arguably the most liberal legislation in Europe at the time.
Other policies included the abolition of capital punishment and economic redistribution in the countryside. The Provisional Government also granted more freedoms to previously suppressed regions of the Russian Empire.
Poland was granted independence and Lithuania and Ukraine became more autonomous. Foreign policy was the one area in which the Provisional Government was able to exercise its discretion to a great extent. However, the continuation of aggressive foreign policy for example, the Kerensky Offensive increased opposition to the government.
The dual power structure was in fact dominated by one side, the Petrograd Soviet. Minister of War Alexander Guchkov stated that "We the Provisional Government do not have authority, but only the appearance of authority; the real power lies with the Soviet". While it was true that the Provisional Government lacked enforcement ability, prominent members within the Government encouraged bottom-up rule.
Politicians such as Prime Minister Georgy Lvov favored devolution of power to decentralized organizations.
The Provisional Government did not desire the complete decentralization of power, but certain members definitely advocated more political participation by the masses in the form of grassroots mobilization. Democratization[ edit ] The rise of local organizations, such as trade unions and rural institutions, and the devolution of power within Russian government gave rise to democratization.
It is difficult to say that the Provisional Government desired the rise of these powerful, local institutions. As stated in the previous section, some politicians within the Provisional Government advocated the rise of these institutions.
Local government bodies had discretionary authority when deciding which Provisional Government laws to implement. Real enforcement power was in the hands of these local institutions and the soviets.
Mosse points out, this time period represented "the only time in modern Russian history when the Russian people were able to play a significant part in the shaping of their destinies". Special interest groups also developed throughout Special interest groups play a large role in every society deemed "democratic" today, and such was the case of Russia in Many on the far left would argue that the presence of special interest groups represent a form of bourgeois democracy, in which the interests of an elite few are represented to a greater extent than the working masses.
The rise of special interest organizations gave people the means to mobilize and play a role in the democratic process.The Provincial Secretary was a senior position in the executive councils of British North America's colonial governments, and was retained by the Canadian provincial governments for at least a century after Canadian Confederation was proclaimed in Others believed that Russia, having made promises to its allies in , should honour them.
The Provisional Government chose the latter path, a decision that eventually proved fatal. By the end of July , the Provisional Government was disregarded, disrespected and almost powerless.
The Russian Provisional Government (Russian: Временное правительство России, tr. Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March [15 March, New Style] Head of government: Georgy Lvov.
ZEMSTVO. Zemstvo was a system of local self-government used in a number of regions in the European part of Russia from to It was instituted as a result of the zemstvo reform of January 1, Jun 13, · The Russian Provisional Government was formed in the aftermath of Tsar Nicholas II’s abdication from the throne on March 2, After Nicholas’ departure, the Duma was the only real legal authority left to run the country.
Jun 13, · The Russian Provisional Government was formed in the aftermath of Tsar Nicholas II’s abdication from the throne on March 2, After Nicholas’ departure, the Duma was the only real legal authority left to run the country.