Arnfinn Christensen A more substantial impression.
The Viking age has long been associated with unbridled piracy, when freebooters swarmed out of the northlands in their longships to burn and pillage their way across civilized Europe.
Modern scholarship provides evidence this is a gross simplification, and that during this period much progress was achieved in terms of Scandinavian art and craftsmanship, marine technology, exploration, and the development of commerce. It seems the Vikings did as much trading as they did raiding.
The title "Viking" encompasses a wide designation of Nordic people; Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians, who lived during a period of brisk Scandinavian expansion in the middle ages, from approximately to AD.
This name may be derived from the Vikings research paper Norse vik bay or creek. These people came from what is now Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, and had a self-sustaining, agricultural society, where farming and cattle breeding were supplemented by hunting, fishing, the extraction of iron and the quarrying of rock to make whetstones and cooking utensils; some goods, however, had to be traded; salt, for instance, which is a necessity for man and cattle alike, is an everyday item and thus would not have been imported from a greater distance than necessary, while luxury items could be brought in from farther south in Europe.
Their chief export products were, iron, whetstones, and soapstone cooking pots, these were an essential contribution to a trade growth in the Viking age.
Archaeological excavations have shown evidence of homesteads, farms, and marketplaces, where discarded or lost articles tell of a common everyday life. As the Viking period progressed, society changed; leading Chieftain families accumulated sufficient land and power to form the basis for kingdoms, and the first towns were founded.
These market places and towns were based on craftsmanship and trade.
Even Vikings research paper the town dwelling Vikings kept cattle, farmed, and fished to meet their household needs, the towns probably depended on agricultural supplies from outlying areas. They also unfortunately did not pay as much attention to renovation and waste disposal as they did to town planning, as evidenced by the thick layers of waste around settlements.
In contemporary times the stench must have been nauseating. Trade, however, was still plentiful, even in periods when Viking raids abounded, trade was conducted between Western Europe and the Viking homeland; an example of this being the North Norwegian chieftain, Ottar, and King Alfred of Wessex.
Ottar visited King Alfred as a peaceful trader at the same time as Alfred was waging war with other Viking chieftains. The expansion of the Vikings was probably triggered by a population growth out stepping the capacities of domestic resources.
Archaeological evidence shows that new farms were cleared in sparsely populated forests at the time of their expansion. The abundance of iron in their region and their ability to forge it into weapons and arm everyone setting off on raids helped give the Vikings the upper hand in most battles.
The first recorded Viking raid occurred in AD, the holy island of the Lindisfarne monastery just off the Northeast shoulder of England was pillaged, around the same time, there are recorded reports of raids elsewhere in Europe. There are narratives of raids in the Mediterranean, and as far as the Caspian Sea.
Norsemen from Kiev even attempted an attack on Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. Unfortunately, in the picture handed down to us in written accounts, the Vikings are portrayed as terrible robbers and bandits, this is strictly a single sided view; and, while the above statement is probably true, they had other traits as well.
Some of their leaders were very skillful organizers, as evidenced by the fact that they were able to establish kingdoms in already-conquered territories.
Some of these, such as the ones established in Dublin and York did not survive the Viking period; Iceland, however, is still a thriving nation. The remains of fortresses dated to the end of the Viking period, have been found in Denmark; the fortresses are circular and are divided into quadrants, with square buildings in each of the four sections.
The precision with which these castles were placed indicates an advanced sense of order, and a knowledge of surveying techniques and geometry in the Danish Kingdom.
The farthest westward drive occurred around AD, when people from Iceland or Greenland attempted to plant roots in the North coast of Newfoundland in North America, however, conflicts arose between these colonists and the indigenous Indians or the Eskimos, and the colonists gave up. Eventually, the Vikings plundering raids were replaced by colonization; in the north of England, place names reveal a large Viking population, farther south in Britain, an area was called The Danelaw.
The French king gave Normandy as payment to a Viking chieftain so that he would keep other Vikings away. At the end of the Viking age, Christianity was widely accepted in the Nordic countries. It replaced a heathen religion, in which gods and goddesses each had power over their domain; Odin was their chieftain, Thor was the god of the warriors, the goddess Froy was responsible for the fertility of the soil and livestock; Loki was a trickster and a sorcerer and was always distrusted by the other gods.
The gods had dangerous adversaries, the Jotuns, who represented the darker side of life. Burial techniques indicate a strong belief in the afterlife; even though the dead could be buried or cremated, burial gifts were always necessary.
Home page of the School of Archaeology at the University of Oxford. Consisting of the Research Laboratory for Archaeology & the History of art and the Institute of Archaeology. The Existence of Vikings Research Paper The Vikings The Vikings were extraordinary mariners from modern-day northern Germany who traveled and settled in areas throughout Europe, Asia, and the north Atlantic islands . The high-tech plastic roof on the new Minnesota Vikings stadium looks like something from a household kitchen — a wobbly, paper-thin surface that could be used as a cutting board. It’s called.
The amount of equipment the dead took with them reflected their status in life as well as different burial traditions. A clue to the violent nature of Viking society, is the fact that nearly all the graves of males included weapons.
A warrior had to have a sword, a wooden shield with an iron boss at its center to protect the hand, a spear, an ax, and a bow with 24 arrows. Even in the graves with the most impressive array of weapons, there are signs of more peaceful activities; sickles, scythes, and hoes lie alongside of weapons; the blacksmith was buried with his hammer, anvil, tongs, and file.
The coastal farmer has kept his fishing equipment and is often buried in a boat. There are also instances of burials being conducted in enormous ships, three examples of this are:Headlines.
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The period from the earliest recorded raids in the s until the Norman conquest of England in is commonly known as the Viking Age of Scandinavian history.
Vikings used the Norwegian Sea and Baltic Sea for sea routes to the south. The Normans were descended from Vikings who were given feudal overlordship of areas in northern France—the Duchy of Normandy—in the 10th century.
The high-tech plastic roof on the new Minnesota Vikings stadium looks like something from a household kitchen — a wobbly, paper-thin surface that could be used as a cutting board. It’s called.
Research Papers words | ( pages) | Preview Scandinavia's Europeanization - When most people think of early Scandinavia, they think of horned Vikings pillaging and raping their way through Europe. A more rigorous study conducted by the Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin in December, , revealed that the Vikings’ genetic contribution to Irish DNA had been largely underestimated.